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        王國維:殷周制度論(繁體版)

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 3988 次 更新時間:2012-06-07 08:29:07

        進入專題: 王國維   殷周制度論  

        王國維 (進入專欄)  

          

           中國政治與文化之變革,莫劇於殷、周之際。都邑者,政治與文化之標徵也。自上古以來,帝王之都皆在東方。太皞之虛在陳,大庭氏之庫在魯,黃帝邑於涿 鹿之阿,少皞與顓頊之虛皆在魯、衛,帝嚳居亳。惟史言堯都平陽,舜都蒲阪,禹都安邑,俱僻在西北,與古帝宅京之處不同。然堯號陶唐氏,而冢在定陶之成陽; 舜號有虞氏,而子孫封於梁國之虞縣,孟子稱舜生卒之地皆在東夷。蓋洪水之災,兗州當其下游,一時或有遷都之事,非定居於西土也。禹時都邑雖無可考,然夏自 太康以後,以迄後桀,其都邑及他地名之見於經典者,率在東土,與商人錯處河、濟間,蓋數百歲。商有天下,不常厥邑,而前後五遷,不出邦畿千里之內。故自五 帝以來,政治文物所自出之都邑,皆在東方,惟周獨崛起西土。武王克紂之後,立武庚,置三監而去,未能撫有東土也;逮武庚之亂,始以兵力平定東方,克商踐 奄,滅國五十。乃建康叔於衛,伯禽於魯,太公望於齊,召公之子於燕。其於蔡、郕、郜、雍、曹、滕、凡、蔣、邢、茅諸國,碁置於殷之畿內及其侯甸;而齊、 魯、衛三國,以王室懿親 ,並有勛伐,居蒲姑、商、奄故地,為諸侯長;又作雒邑為東都,以臨東諸侯;而天子仍居豐、鎬者凡十一世。自五帝以來,都邑之自東方而移於西方,蓋自周始。 故以族類言之,則虞、夏、皆顓頊後,殷、周皆帝嚳後,宜殷、周為親;以地理言之,則虞、夏、商皆居東土,周獨起於西方,故夏、商二代文化略同。《洪範》 “九疇”,帝之所以錫禹者,而箕子傳之矣;夏之季世,若胤甲,若孔甲,若履癸,始以日為名,而殷人承之矣。文化既爾,政治亦然。周之克殷,滅國五十;又其 遺民,或遷之雒邑,或分之魯、衛諸國 。而殷人所伐,不過韋、顧、昆吾 ;且豕韋之後仍為商伯,昆吾雖亡,而已姓之國仍存於商、周之世。《書? 多士》曰:“夏迪簡在王庭,有服在百僚”,當屬事實。故夏、殷間政治與文物之變革,不似殷、周間之劇烈矣。殷、周間之大變革,自其表言之,不過一姓一家之 興亡與都邑之移轉;自其里言之,則舊制度廢而新制度興,舊文化廢而新文化興。又自其表言之,則古聖人之所以取天下及所以守之者,若無以異於後世之帝王;而 自其里言之,則其制度文物與其立制之本意,乃出於萬世治安之大計,其心術與規摩,迥非後世帝王所能夢見也。

          

           欲觀周之所以定天下,必自其制度始矣。周人制度之大異於商者,一曰“立子立嫡”之制,由是而生宗法及喪服之制,並由是而有封建子弟之制,君天子臣諸 侯之制;二曰廟數之制;三曰同姓不婚之制。此數者,皆周之所以綱紀天下。其旨則在納上下於道德,而合天子、諸侯、卿、大夫、士、庶民以成一道德之團體。周 公製作之本意,實在於此。此非穿鑿附會之言也,茲篇所論,皆有事實為之根據,試略述之。

          

           殷以前無嫡庶之制。黃帝之崩,其二子昌意、玄囂之後,代有天下。顓頊者昌意之子,帝嚳者玄囂之子也;厥後虞、夏皆顓頊後,殷、周皆帝嚳後。有天下 者,但為黃帝之子孫,不必為黃帝之嫡。世動言堯、舜禪讓,湯、武徵誅,若其傳天下與受天下有大不同者。然以帝系言之,堯、舜之禪天下,以舜、禹之功,然 舜、禹皆顓頊後,本可以有天下者也;湯、武之代夏、商,固以其功與德,然湯、武皆帝嚳後,亦本可以有天下者也。以顓頊以來諸朝相繼之次言之,固已無嫡庶之 別矣。一朝之中,其嗣位者亦然。特如商之繼統法,以弟及為主,而以子繼輔之,無弟然後傳子。自成湯至於帝辛三十帝中,以弟繼兄者凡十四帝(外丙、中壬、大 庚、雍己、大戊、外壬、河亶甲、沃甲、南庚、盤庚、大辛、小乙、祖甲、庚丁);其以子繼父者,亦非兄之子,而多為弟之子(小甲、中丁、祖辛、武丁、祖庚、 廩辛、武乙)。惟沃甲崩,祖辛之子祖丁立;祖丁崩,沃甲之子南庚立;南庚崩,祖丁之子陽甲立:此三事獨與商人繼統法不合。此蓋《史記? 殷本紀》所謂中丁以後九世之亂,其間當有爭立之事,而不可考矣。故商人祀其先王,兄弟同禮;既先王兄弟之未立者,其禮亦同,是未嘗有嫡庶之別也。此不獨王 朝之制,諸侯以下亦然。近保定南鄉出句兵三,皆有銘:其一曰“大祖日已、祖日丁、祖日乙、祖日庚、祖日丁、祖日己、祖日已”;其二曰“祖日乙、大父日癸、 大父日癸、中父日癸、父日癸、父日辛、父日己”;其三曰“大兄日已、兄日戊、兄日壬、兄日癸、兄日癸、兄日丙”。此當是殷時北方侯國勒祖父兄之名於兵器以 紀功者;而三世兄弟之名先後駢列,無上下貴賤之別。是故大王之立王季也,文王之舍伯邑考而立武王也,周公之繼武王而攝政稱王也,自殷制言之,皆正也(殷自 武乙以後,四世傳子,又孟子謂:“以紂為兄之子,且以為君,而有微子啟、王子比干。”《呂氏春秋? 當務篇》雲:“紂之同母三人,其長子曰微子啟,其次曰仲衍,其次曰受德。受德乃紂也,甚少矣。紂母之生微子啟與仲衍也,尚為妾;已而為妻而生紂。紂之父, 紂之母欲置微子啟以為大子,大史據法而爭之曰:‘有妻之子而不可置妾之子。’紂故為後”。《史記?殷本紀》則雲:“帝乙長子為微子啟,啟母賤不得嗣;少子 辛,辛母正後,故立辛為嗣。”此三說雖不同,似商末已有立嫡之制。然三說已自互異,恐即以周代之制擬之,未敢信為事實也)。舍弟傳子之法,實自周始。當武 王之崩,天下未定,國賴長君;周公即相武王克殷勝紂,勛勞最高,以德以長,以歷代之制,則繼武王而自立,固其所矣。而周公乃立成王而已攝之,後又反政焉。 攝政者,所以濟變也;立成王者,所以居正也。自是以後,子繼之法遂為百王不易之制矣。

          

           由傳子之制而嫡庶之制生焉。夫舍弟而傳子者,所以息爭也。兄弟之親本不如父子,而兄之尊又不如父,故兄弟間常不免有爭位之事。特如傳弟即盡之後,則 嗣立者當為兄之子歟,弟之子歟?以理論言之,自當立兄之子;以事實言之,則所立者往往為弟之子。此商人所以有中丁以後九世之亂,而周人傳子之制正為救此弊 而設也。然使於諸子之中可以任擇一人而立之,而此子又可任立其欲立者,則其爭益甚,反不如商之兄弟以長幼相及者猶有次第矣。故有傳子之法,而嫡庶之法亦與 之俱生。其條例,則《春秋左氏傳》 之說曰:“太子死,有母弟則立之,無則立長。年鈞擇賢,義鈞則卜。” 公羊家之說曰:“禮,嫡夫人無子,立右媵;右媵無子,立左媵;左媵無子,立嫡侄娣;嫡侄娣無子,立右媵侄娣;右媵侄娣無子,立左媵侄娣。質家親親,先立 娣;文家尊尊,先立侄。嫡子有孫而死,質家親親,先立弟;文家尊尊,先立孫,其雙生也,質家據現在,立先生,文家據本意,立後生。” 此二說中,後說尤為詳密,顧皆後儒充類之說;當立法之初,未必窮其變至此。然所謂立子以貴不以長,立適以長不以賢者,乃傳子法之精髓,當時雖未必有此語, 固已用此意矣。蓋天下之大利莫如定,其大害莫如爭。任天者定,任人者爭;定之以天,爭乃不生。故天子諸侯之傳世也,繼統法之立子與立嫡也,後世用人之以資 格也,皆任天而不參以人,所以求定而息爭也。古人非不知官天下之名美於家天下,立賢之利過於立嫡,人才之用優於資格,而終不以此易彼者,蓋懼夫名之可藉而 爭之易生,其敝將不可勝窮,而民將無時或息也。故衡利而取重,絜害而取輕,而定為立子立嫡之法,以利天下後世;而此制實自周公定之。是周人改製之最大者, 可由殷制比較得之。有周一代禮制,大抵由是出也。

          

           是故由嫡庶之制而宗法與服術二者生焉。商人無嫡庶之制,故不能有宗法。藉曰有之,不過合一族之人奉其族之貴且賢者而宗之;其所宗之人,固非一定而不 可易,如周之大宗、小宗也。周人嫡庶之制,本為天子諸侯繼統法而設,復以此制通之大夫以下,則不為君統而為宗統,於是宗法生焉。周初宗法雖不可考,其見於 七十子後學所述者,則《喪服小記》曰:“別子為祖,繼別為宗,繼禰者為小宗。有五世而遷之宗,其繼高祖者也。是故祖遷於上,宗易於下,敬宗所以尊祖禰也。”《大傳》 曰:“別子為祖,繼別為宗,繼禰者為小宗,有百世不遷之宗,有五世則遷之宗。百世不遷者,別子之後也;宗其繼別子者,百世不遷者也;宗其繼高祖者,五世則 遷者也。尊祖故敬宗,敬宗尊祖之義也。是故有繼別之大宗,有繼高祖之宗,有繼曾祖之宗,有繼祖之宗,有繼禰之宗,是為五宗。其所宗者皆嫡也,宗之者皆庶 也。此製為大夫以下設,而不上及天子諸侯。”鄭康成於《喪服小記》註曰:“別子,諸侯之庶子,別為後世為始祖者也;謂之別子者,公子不得禰先君也。”又於 《大傳》註曰:“公子不得宗君。”是天子諸侯雖本世嫡,於事實當統無數之大宗,然以尊故,無宗名。其庶子不得禰先君,又不得宗今君,故自為別子,而其子乃 為繼別之大宗。言禮者嫌別子之世近於無宗也,故《大傳》說之曰:“有大宗而無小宗者,有小宗而無大宗者,有無宗亦莫之宗者,公子是也。公子有宗道,公子之 公為其士大夫之庶者,宗其士大夫之適者。”《註》曰:“公子不得宗君,君命適昆弟為之宗,使之宗之,此傳所謂有大宗而無小宗也。又若無適昆弟,則使庶昆弟 一人為之宗,而諸庶兄弟事之如小宗,此傳所謂有小宗而無大宗也。” 《大傳》此說,頗與《小記》及其自說違異。蓋宗必有所繼,我之所以宗之者,以其繼別若繼高祖以下故也,君之嫡昆弟、庶昆弟皆不得繼先君,又何所據以為眾兄 弟之宗乎?或雲:立此宗子者,所以合族也。若然,則所合者一公之子耳;至此公之子與先公之子若孫間,仍無合之之道。是大夫士以下皆有族;而天子諸侯之子, 於其族曾祖父母、從祖祖父母、世父母、叔父母以下服之所及者,乃無綴屬之法,是非先王教人親親之意也。故由尊之統言,則天子諸侯絕宗,王子公子無宗可也; 由親之統言,則天子諸侯之子,身為別子而其後世為大宗者,無不奉天子諸侯以為最大之大宗,將以尊卑既殊,不敢加以宗名,而其實則仍在也。故《大傳》曰: “君有合族之道。”其在《詩?小雅》之《常棣序》曰:“燕兄弟也。”其詩曰:“儐爾籩豆,飲酒之飫,兄弟既具,和樂且孺。”《大雅》之《行葦序》曰:“周家能內睦九族也。”其詩曰:“戚戚兄弟,莫通具爾,或肆之筵,或授之幾。”是即《周禮?大宗伯》所謂以飲食之禮親宗族兄弟者,是天子之收族也。《文王世子》曰:“公與族人燕則以齒。”又曰:“公與族人燕,則異姓為賓。”是諸侯之收族也。夫收族者,大宗之事也。又在《小雅》之《楚茨》曰:“諸父兄弟,備言燕私。”此言天子諸侯祭畢而與族人燕也。《尚書大 傳》曰:“宗室有事,族人皆侍終日。大宗已侍於賓奠,然後燕私。燕私者何也?祭已而與族人飲也。”是祭畢而燕族人者,亦大宗之事也。是故天子諸侯雖無大宗 之名,而有大宗之實。《篤公劉》之詩曰:“食之飲之,君之宗之。”《傳》曰:“為之君,為之大宗也。”《板》之詩曰:“大宗維翰。”《傳》曰:“王者,天 下之大宗。”又曰; “宗子維城。”《箋》曰:“王者之嫡子,謂之宗子。”是禮家之大宗限於大夫以下者,詩人直以稱天子諸侯。惟在天子諸侯,則宗統與君統合,故不必以宗名。大 夫、士以下皆以賢才進,不必是嫡子,故宗法乃成一獨立之統系。是以喪服有為宗子及其母、妻之服皆齊衰三月,與庶人為國君、曾孫為曾祖父母之服同。適子、庶 子祇事宗子,宗婦雖貴富,不敢以貴富入於宗子之家;子弟猶歸器,祭則具二牲,獻其賢者於宗子,夫婦皆齊而宗敬焉,終事而敢私祭,是故大夫以下,君統之外復 戴宗統,此由嫡庶之制自然而生者也。

          

        其次則為喪服之制。喪服之大綱四:曰“親親”,曰“尊尊”,曰“長長”,曰“男女有別”。無嫡庶,則有親而無尊,有恩而無義,而喪服之統紊矣。故殷 以前之服制,就令成一統系,其不能如周禮服之完密,則可斷也。喪服中之自嫡庶之制出者:如父為長子,三年;為眾子,期。庶子不得為長子三年。母為長子,三 年;為眾子,期。公為適子之長殤、中殤,大功;為庶子之長殤、中殤,無服。大夫為適子之長殤、中殤,大功;為庶子之長殤,小功。適婦,大功;庶婦,小功。 適孫,期;庶孫,小功。大夫為嫡孫為士者,期;庶孫,小功。出妻之子為母,期。為父後者,則為出母,無服;為父後者,(點擊此處閱讀下一頁)

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