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        宗白華:中國文化的美麗精神往哪里去

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 273 次 更新時間:2019-09-01 00:20:05

        進入專題: 美學   中國文化  

        宗白華  

          

           印度詩哲太戈爾在國際大學中國學院的小冊里曾說過這幾句話:“世界上還有什么事情比中國文化的美麗精神更值得寶貴的?中國文化使人民喜愛現實世界,愛護備至,卻又不致陷于現實得不近情理!他們已本能地找到了事物的旋律的秘密。不是科學權力的秘密,而是表現方法的秘密。這是極其偉大的一種天賦。因為只有上帝知道這種秘密。我實妒忌他們有此天賦,并愿我們的同胞亦能共享此秘密。”

          

           太戈爾這幾句話里包含著極精深的觀察與意見,值得我們細加考察。

          

           先談“中國人已本能地找到了事物的旋律的秘密”。東西古代哲人都曾仰觀俯察探求宇宙的秘密。但希臘及西洋近代哲人傾向于拿邏輯的推理、數學的演繹、物理學的考察去把握宇宙間質力推移的規律,一方面滿足我們理知了解的需要,一方面導引西洋人,去控制物力,發明機械,利用厚生。西洋思想最后所獲著的是科學權力的秘密。

          

           中國古代哲人卻是拿“默而識之”的觀照態度去體驗宇宙間生生不已的節奏,太戈爾所謂旋律的秘密。《論語》上載:子曰:“予欲無言!”子貢曰:“夫子不言,則小子何述焉?”子曰:“天何言哉。四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉!”

          

           四時的運行,生育萬物,對我們展示著天地創造性的旋律的秘密。一切在此中生長流動,具有節奏與和諧。古人拿音樂里的五聲配合四時五行,拿十二律分配于十二月(《漢書·律歷志》),使我們一歲中的生活融化在音樂的節奏中,從容不迫而感到內部有意義有價值,充實而美。不像現在大都市的居民靈魂里,孤獨空虛,英國詩人艾利略有“荒原”的慨嘆。

          

           不但孔子,老子也從他高超嚴冷的眼里觀照著世界的旋律。他說:“致虛極,守靜篤,萬物并作,吾以觀其復!”

          

           活潑的莊子也說他“靜而與陰同德,動而與陽同波”,他把他的精神生命體合于自然的旋律。

          

           孟子說他能“上下與天地同流”。荀子歌頌著天地的節奏:列星隨旋,日月遞照,四時代御,陰陽大化,風雨博施,萬物各得其和以生,各得其養以成。

          

           我們不必多引了,我們已見到了中國古代哲人是“本能地找到了宇宙旋律的秘密”。而把這獲得的至寶,滲透進我們的現實生活,使我們生活表現禮與樂里,創造社會的秩序與和諧。我們又把這旋律裝飾到我們的日用器皿上,使形下之器啟示著形上之道(即生命的旋律)。中國古代藝術特色表現在他所創造的各種圖案花紋里,而中國最光榮的繪畫藝術也還是從商周銅器圖案、漢代磚瓦花紋里脫胎出來的呢!

          

           “中國人喜愛現實世界,愛護備至,卻又不致現實得不近情理”。我們在新石器時代從我們的日用器皿制出玉器,作為我們政治上、社會上及精神人格上美麗的象征物。我們在銅器時代也把我們的日用器皿,如烹飪的鼎、飲酒的爵等等,制造精美,竭盡當時的藝術技能,他們成了天地境界的象征。我們對最現實的器具,賦予崇高的意義,優美的形式,使它們不僅僅是我們役使的工具,而是可以同我們對語、同我們情思往還的藝術境界。后來我們發展了瓷器(西人稱我們是瓷國)。瓷器就是玉的精神的承續與光大,使我們在日常現實生活中能充滿著玉的美。

          

           但我們也曾得到過科學權力的秘密。我們有兩大發明:火藥同指南針。這兩項發明到了西洋人手里,成就了他們控制世界的權力,陸上霸權與海上霸權,中國自己倒成了這霸權的犧牲品。我們發明著火藥,用來創造奇巧美麗的煙火和鞭炮,使我一般民眾在一年勞苦休息的時候,新年及春節里,享受平民式的歡樂。

          

           我們發明指南針,并不曾向海上取霸權,卻讓風水先生勘定我們廟堂、居宅及墳墓的地位和方向,使我們生活中頂重要的“住”,能夠選擇優美適當的自然環境,“居之安而資之深”。我們到郊外,看那山環水抱的亭臺樓閣,如入圖畫。中國建筑能與自然背景取得最完美的調協,而且用高聳天際的層樓飛檐及環拱柱廊、欄桿臺階的虛實節奏,昭示出這一片山水里潛流的旋律。

          

           漆器也是我們極早的發明,使我們的日用器皿生光輝,有情韻。最近沈福文君引用古代各時期圖案花紋到他設計的漆器里,使我們再能有美麗的器皿點綴我們的生活,這是值得興奮的事。但是要能有大量的價廉的生產,使一般人民都能在日常生活中時時接觸趣味高超、形制優美的物質環境,這才是一個民族的文化水平的尺度。

          

           中國民族很早發現了宇宙旋律及生命節奏的秘密,以和平的音樂的心境愛護現實,美化現實,因而輕視了科學工藝征服自然的權力。這使我們不能解救貧弱的地位,在生存競爭劇烈的時代,受人侵略,受人欺侮,文化的美麗精神也不能長保了,靈魂里粗野了,卑鄙了,怯懦了,我們也現實得不近情理了。我們喪盡了生活里旋律的美(盲動而無秩序)、音樂的境界(人與人之間充滿了猜忌、斗爭)。一個最尊重樂教、最了解音樂價值的民族沒有了音樂。這就是說沒有了國魂,沒有了構成生命意義、文化意義的高等價值。中國精神應該往哪里去?

          

           近代西洋人把握科學權力的秘密(最近如原子能的秘密),征服了自然,征服了科學落后的民族,但不肯體會人類全體共同生活的旋律美,不肯“參天地,贊化育”,提攜全世界的生命,演奏壯麗的交響樂,感謝造化宣示給我們的創化機密,而以撕殺之聲暴露人性的丑惡,西洋精神又要往哪里去?哪里去?這都是引起我們惆悵、深思的問題。

          

           1946年作,編入《藝境》未刊本

          

            進入專題: 美學   中國文化  

        本文責編:limei
        發信站:愛思想(http://www.2sungmin.com),欄目:天益學術 > 哲學 > 美學
        本文鏈接:http://www.2sungmin.com/data/117981.html
        文章來源:《藝境》

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