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        韓星:釋奠禮的政治文化意蘊及其現代意義

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 117 次 更新時間:2019-08-27 23:10:31

        進入專題: 祭祀  

        韓星 (進入專欄)  

           釋奠禮源于古代的圣王祭祀。中國古代祭祀對象繁多,后來逐漸演變成為三大祭禮:祭天地、祭袓先、祭圣賢。《國語·魯語上》中記載了禘、郊、祖、宗、報五種國家祭祀的典章:“夫圣王之制祀也,法施于民則祀之,以死勤事則祀也,以勞定國則祀之,能御大災則祀之,能捍大患則祀之。非是族也,不在祀典。”圣王制定祭祀禮節的原則是:凡是以完善的法規治理人民的就祭祀他;凡是為國事操勞,至死不懈的就祭祀他;凡是有安定國家的功勞的就祭祀他;凡是抵御重大災禍的就祭祀他。不屬于這些范圍的就不能列入祭祀的典章內。將這五條原則歸結為一點,即所有被祭祀的人“皆有功烈于民者也”,也就是只有為人民建立了功勞,對歷史文化有卓越貢獻的人。接著,他又以黃帝、堯、舜、鯀、禹、契、商湯、后稷、周文王、周武王等十四個祭祀對象進一步加以證明,這就是圣王祭祀。《禮記·祭法》也有類似的記載。

           荀子《禮論》把禮的內容歸結為“天地”“先祖”“君師”,他說:“禮有三本:天地者,上之本也;先祖者,類之本也;君師者,治之本也……故禮,上事天,下事地,尊先祖而隆君師,是禮之三本也。”荀子總結的應該是孔子以后的情況。釋奠禮本是古代學校的祭祀典禮,屬于“三禮”中的“君師”之禮。周代的官學中,就有釋奠先圣先師的禮儀,《禮記·文王世子》記載:“凡學,春,官釋奠于其先師,秋冬亦如之。凡始立學者,必釋奠于先圣先師”。作為孔廟祭禮中規格最高的一種祭孔活動,曲阜孔廟舉行釋奠禮,除有皇帝親臨或御遣欽差外,例由衍圣公主祭孔子、四配,屬官分祭十二哲、先賢、先儒、啟圣祠、崇圣祠、寢殿、家廟等。

          

           祭祀先圣先師的政治文化意蘊:

           第一,圣人崇拜。圣人是聰明睿智,通達天地萬物,下學上達,超凡入圣,與天道合一的最高理想人格。《孟子·盡心》“大而化之之謂圣,圣而不可知之之謂神”,圣人是出類拔萃的大人,具有神性,故曰“神圣”。邵雍《皇極經世書·觀物篇》:“圣也者,人之至者也。……謂其能以一心觀萬心,一身觀萬身,一物觀萬物,一世觀萬世者焉。又謂其能以心代天意,口代天言,手代天功,身代天事者焉。又謂其能以上順天時,下應地理,中徇物情,通盡人事者焉。又謂其能以彌綸天地,出入造化,進退今古,表里時事者焉。”儒家對圣人的尊崇,成為我國文化史上后來崇拜圣人的基礎,后世中國人希賢希圣已經成為一種民族文化心理,如醫學中有“醫圣”東漢張仲景,書法中有“書圣”王羲之,繪畫中有“畫圣”吳道子,詩歌上有“詩圣”杜甫等……圣人崇拜已經深入到民族文化的深處,使得普通中國老百姓對孔圣人的崇拜情感不斷提升,使孔子成為中華民族共有的精神信仰。

           第二,尊師重道。孔子一生主要是辦私學,從事教育,是師儒身份。師儒源于《周禮·地官·大司徒》:“四曰聯師儒。”鄭玄注:“師儒,鄉里教以道藝者”,西周的師儒是在民間進行道德和禮樂教化的儒者。因為師儒是以道教人,所以就有尊師重道,在尊師重道的基礎上才有尊師重教。《禮記·學記》曰:“凡學之道,嚴師為難。師嚴然后道尊,道尊然后民知敬學。是故君之所不臣于其臣者二:當其為尸,則弗臣也;當其為師,則弗臣也。大學之禮,雖詔于天子,無北面,所以尊師也。”大凡求學之道,很難遇到嚴格的老師。老師嚴格其所傳之道才能受到尊重,重道才能使人敬重學業。所以君王不以對待臣子的態度對待臣子的有兩種情況:當他在祭祀中作為祭尸(神的替身)時,則不以臣子相待;當他作為君主老師時,則不以臣子相待。根據大學禮制,給天子授課,授課的臣下無需北面而居臣位,這就是為了表示尊師重道的緣故。祭孔,從周敬王四十二年(478年)魯哀公立廟,歲時奉祀開始,到清光緒三十二年(1906年)奉旨將孔廟祭祀規格升為大祀,皇帝行三跪九拜禮,可以說達到了極致。又據山東曲阜市文管會編撰的《曲阜觀覽-帝王祭廟考》中的統計,自漢武帝起至于清末,帝王(親自或委派專使)赴曲阜孔廟祭孔達196次之多。帝王之祭孔,向孔子行大禮,主要是出于政統合法性的考慮,即需要借用道統賴為政統確立合法性,而孔子就是道統的象征。帝王之拜孔子,就是政統自覺以道統為制約和引導的體現。

           第三,尊孔重儒。孔子是儒家學說的創始人,中國上古以來思想文化的集大成者,集圣與師于一體,在在世時被尊奉為“天縱之圣”“天之木鐸”,被后世統治者尊為孔圣人、至圣、至圣先師、大成至圣文宣王先師、萬世師表。其思想對中國和世界都有深遠的影響,被列為“世界十大文化名人”之首。他的思想光輝,超越時空,深刻地影響了中華民族,決定了中華民族的精神面貌,是中華民族的精神導師,也對人類精神文明作出了不可磨滅的貢獻。所以朱熹曾說:“天不生仲尼,萬古長如夜”。柳詒微著《中國文化史》有云“孔子者中國文化之中心;無孔子則無中國文化。自孔子以前數千年之文化賴孔子而傳,自孔子以后數千年之文化賴孔子而開;無孔子,則無中國文化。”吳宓也說:“孔子者,理想中最高之人物。其道德智慧,卓絕千古,無人能及之,故稱為圣人。圣人者模范人,乃古今人中之第一人也。”

           第四,神道設教。歷代帝王祭孔主要是神道設教。“神道設教”出于《周易·觀卦》:“觀天之神道,而四時不忒,圣人以神道設教而天下服矣。”“神道”即天道,是從信仰的意義上看的“天道”,因此就是“天之神道”。《禮記·祭統》說:“是故君子之教也,必由其本,順之至也。祭其是與?故曰:祭者,教之本也已。”祭祀是教化之本。后世帝王們大都懂得“孔子之教,非帝王之政不能及遠;帝王之政,非孔子之教不能善俗。教之不能遠,無損于道;政之不能善俗,必危其國。”(《孔貞叢:《闕里志》卷十,天歷二年(1329),《遣官祭闕里廟碑》)魏晉以后的歷代帝王,建立王朝以后大都先確立儒家的主體地位,以儒為主,治國理政,再出于三教平衡考慮,利用和控制道佛。唐王朝對儒佛道采取的基本政策是三教并用,即根據三教各自的歷史淵源、思想特點、不同功能,立足于朝廷與國家的穩定,帝王的政治理性,以及帝王個人的喜好與信仰,采取了崇道、重儒、尊佛的總體政策。具體即崇道以尋求血統的正統性,為提升皇權合法性的基礎;重儒以尋求道統的合法性,確立治國理政的主體;尊佛以重建精神世界信仰,以為歸化民心的工具。大致格局是在確立儒學意識形態正統和國家民族主體信仰地位的前提下,以儒為主,以佛、道補充和輔助,逐漸形成了儒、佛、道三教并行,三元和合的局面,其中儒教具有主體的地位,與國家政權緊密結合,指導和支配政治生活、公共領域的一切方面及個人生活的某些領域。后來,在面對景教等其他多元宗教的形勢下,又不斷調整,形成了以儒為主,整合多元文化,構建立體的國家意識形態體系和國民信仰體系。這充分表明唐王朝處理三教關系的方法和手段開始成熟起來。這一格局由隋代開啟,唐初高祖和唐太宗二帝奠基,歷經高宗、武周、唐中宗、睿宗的發展,大致到了唐玄宗開元時期最終完成(韓星:《初唐儒家話語體系下的三教關系》,《社會科學》,2017年第12期)。

          

           總之,釋奠禮有著豐富的政治、文化蘊涵,在禮樂復興過程中,我們不僅僅要重視禮樂外在形式的復興,更要重視禮樂價值基礎和內在精神的闡發。當今中國文化全面復興,禮樂復興已經成為一道靚麗的風景線,但很多時候讓人們感到一些禮樂活動有形式而無內容或者形式大于內容,這樣必然影響到禮樂活動的實際效果,也不是真正意義上的禮樂復興。多年前張豈之先生就指出過清明節陜西黃陵黃帝祭祀禮儀“形祭”大于“心祭”,甚至“形祭”代替了一切,缺少在祭祀中令人感動的“心祭”。其結果,自然也對祭祀禮儀的實際效果產生了一定影響(張豈之:《心祭重于形祭》,公祭軒轅帝網)。“心祭”其實就是要我們參加祭祀活動要虔誠。《禮記·祭統》曰:“外則盡物,內則盡志,此祭之心也。”外觀則要求祭品極其豐盛,內心則極其虔誠、盡其心志,這才算是祭祀的用心。如果重視禮儀而忽視禮之本,禮樂復興就有可能舍本逐末,給反對傳統文化復興的人找到借口,說你們這些禮樂活動很“虛偽”,而這正是應該注意和自戒的。

          

           注:本文為韓星教授在2019年5月25日河北省儒學會主辦的“祭孔釋奠禮推廣工作研討會”上發表的論文。

          

        進入 韓星 的專欄     進入專題: 祭祀  

        本文責編:sunxuqian
        發信站:愛思想(http://www.2sungmin.com),欄目:天益學術 > 哲學 > 中國哲學
        本文鏈接:http://www.2sungmin.com/data/117927.html
        文章來源:河北省儒學會

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