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        季羨林:中國經籍之西傳

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 208 次 更新時間:2019-08-16 08:55:51

        進入專題: 中國經籍   文化交流  

        季羨林 (進入專欄)  

          

           四書、五經在中國歷史上有至高無上的權威。如果中國經籍西傳,首當其沖的理所當然地就是這些書。明朝萬歷二十一年(1593年),利瑪竇將四書譯為拉丁文,寄還本國。天啟六年(1626年),比人金尼閣將五經譯為拉丁文,在杭州刊印。到了清朝,殷鐸澤與郭納爵合譯《大學》為拉丁文,康熙元年(1662年)刻于建昌。殷氏又將《中庸》譯為拉丁文,于康熙六年(1667年)和康熙八年(1669年)分別刻于廣州及印度果阿。《論語》之最早譯本亦出殷、郭二人之手,亦為拉丁文。康熙二十年(1681年),比教士柏應理返回歐洲。康熙二十六年(1687年)在巴黎發刊其著作《中國之哲學家孔子》。中文標題雖為《西文四書解》,但未譯《孟子》,名實實不相符。康熙二十六年(1687年),奧國教士白乃心用意大利文寫的《中國雜記》出版。康熙五十年(1711年),布拉格大學圖書館出版衛方濟用拉丁文翻譯的四書及《孝經》、《幼學》,1783年至1786年譯為法文。衛氏又以拉丁文著《中國哲學》,與上書同時同地刊出。白晉著有拉丁文《易經大意》,未刊。康熙四十年(1702年),白晉自北京致書德國大哲學家萊勃尼茲,討論中國哲學及禮俗。現在梵蒂岡圖書館中尚藏有西士研究《易經》之華文稿本十四種,宋君榮曾譯《書經》,劉應譯《禮記》的一部分。康熙末年,馬若瑟節譯《書經》、《詩經》。康熙四十六年(1707年),馬若瑟自建昌府致函歐洲,討論儒教。雷孝思參加繪制《皇朝一統輿地全圖》,對中國古籍亦有研究。傅圣澤有《道德經評注》,為拉丁文及法文合譯稿本。他又用法文譯《詩經》。赫蒼璧于康熙四十年(1701年)來華,亦曾從事翻譯《詩經》。

          

           到了雍正乾隆年間,中籍西譯繼續進行。宋君榮所譯之《書經》于乾隆三十五年(1770年)刊于巴黎。他還研究中國經籍之訓詁問題。孫璋為后期來華耶穌會神父中最精通漢學者。他所譯拉丁文《詩經》附有注解。他又譯有《禮記》,稿成未刊。蔣友仁制作圓明園中的噴水池,為人所艷稱。他又深通漢籍,用拉丁文譯有《書經》、《孟子》等書。乾隆時有一個叫錢德明的人,精通滿漢文,譯有《盛京賦》,并研究我國古樂及石鼓文等,他是西人中最早研究我國苗族及兵學者。乾隆四十年(1775年)在北京著《華民古遠考》,列舉《易經》、《詩經》、《書經》、《春秋》及《史記》為證。乾隆四十九年(1784年),又在北京刊印《孔子傳》,為錢氏著作中之最佳者。此外,他還有《孔門弟子傳略》,以乾隆四十九年(1784年)或次年刊于北京。韓國英譯有《大學》及《中庸》,又著有《記中國人之孝道》。韓氏可能是19世紀前西人研究我國經籍的最后一人。他的本行是生物學。

          

           從明末到乾隆年間,中國經籍之西傳,情況大體如上。既然傳了過去,必然產生影響。有的影響竟與熱心翻譯中國經書之耶穌會神父的初衷截然相違。我在下面介紹方豪一段話:“介紹中國思想至歐洲者,原為耶穌會士,本在說明彼等發現一最易接受‘福音’之園地,以鼓勵教士前來中國,并為勸導教徒多為中國教會捐款。不意儒家經書中原理,竟為歐洲哲家取為反對教會之資料。而若輩所介紹之中國康熙年間之安定局面,使同時期歐洲動蕩之政局,相形之下,大見遜色;歐洲人竟以為中國人乃一純粹有德性之民族,中國成為若輩理想國家,孔子成為歐洲思想界之偶像。”

          

           中國俗話說:“搬起石頭砸自己的腳”,頗與此相類了。

          

           受中國經籍影響的,以法、德兩國的哲學家為主,英國稍遜。舉其犖犖大者,則有法國大哲學家笛卡爾等。法國百科全書派也深受中國思想之影響。在德國方面,啟蒙時期的大哲學家斯賓諾莎、萊勃尼茲等,都直接受到了笛卡爾的影響,間接受到中國影響。康德認為,斯賓諾莎的泛神論完全受的是老子的影響。萊勃尼茲21歲就受到中國影響。后與閔明我、白晉訂交,直接接受中國思想。1697年,萊氏的拉丁文著作《中國近事》出版。他在書中說:“在實踐哲學方面,歐洲人實不如中國人。”有人認為,康德的哲學也受了中國哲學的影響,特別宋儒理學。

          

           中國經籍西傳,不但影響了歐洲哲學,而且也影響了歐洲政治。在德國,萊勃尼茲與華爾弗利用中國哲學推動了德國的精神革命。在法國,思想家們則認為中國哲學為無神論、唯物論與自然主義。這三者實為法國大革命之哲學基礎。百科全書派全力推動革命的發展。法國大革命實質上是反宗教之哲學革命。法國的啟蒙運動,也是以反宗教為開端。形成這種反宗教的氣氛者,歸根結底是中國思想傳播的結果。法國大革命前夕,中國趣味在法國以及整個歐洲廣泛流行。宮廷與貴族社會為中國趣味所壟斷。而宮廷與貴族又是左右法國政治的集團。則中國趣味對法國政治之影響,概可想見了。

          

           百科全書派把反宗教和鼓吹革命的思想注入所撰寫的百科全書中。他們與中國文化有深刻的接觸。但因認識中國之渠道不同,對中國的意見也有分歧。孟德斯鳩與盧梭談的多是歐洲旅客的游記等,對中國遂多有鄙薄之論。荷爾巴旭、服爾德(今譯作伏爾泰)、波勿爾、魁斯奈等等,所讀多是耶穌會士之報告或書札,對中國文化多有欽慕之意。孟德斯鳩著《法意》第一卷第一章,給法律下定義,提出“萬物自然之理”,主張“有理斯有法”,完全是宋儒思想。服爾德(今譯作伏爾泰)七歲即在耶穌會士主辦的學校中受教育,對中國文化無條件地贊賞,在自己的小禮拜堂中,供孔子畫像,朝夕禮拜。他認為,孔子所說:“僅為極純粹之道德,不談奇跡,不涉玄虛。”他說:“人類智慧不能獲得較中國政治更優良之政治組織。”又說:“中國為世界最公正最仁愛之民族。”他還根據《趙氏孤兒》寫了一部《中國孤兒》。第德洛對中國有批評意見,但認為中國文化在各民族之上。盧梭承認中國為文明最高古國,但他認為文明并非幸福之表記,中國雖文明,而不免為異族所侵凌,他是“文明否定論者”。中國思想除了影響了上述的哲學家之外,還影響了所謂政治經濟學上的“重農學派”。這一學派以自然法代替上帝的功能。他們倡導“中國化”,不遺余力,甚至影響了國王路易十五。英國經濟學家亞當·斯密受了法國思想家的影響,在《原富》一書中應用中國材料頗多。

          

           在德國,中國影響同樣顯著。大文豪歌德是一個突出的代表。哲學家也深受中國思想影響。萊勃尼茲、斯賓諾莎,上面已經談到。其他哲學家,康德、菲希特、謝林、黑格爾等,都受了萊勃尼茲的影響,也可以說,間接受了中國影響。叔本華哲學中除了有印度成分外,也受了朱子的影響。

          

        進入 季羨林 的專欄     進入專題: 中國經籍   文化交流  

        本文責編:limei
        發信站:愛思想(http://www.2sungmin.com),欄目:天益學術 > 語言學和文學 > 文化研究
        本文鏈接:http://www.2sungmin.com/data/117717.html
        文章來源:《從宏觀上看中國文化》

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