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        反對祛魅

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 1308 次 更新時間:2019-07-18 16:48:45

        吳萬偉  

        杰森·約瑟夫森·斯多姆 吳萬偉

         

        擺脫神話走向理性是人們最古老的沖動。但是,賦魅就一定與啟蒙對立嗎?

        啟蒙項目是對世界的祛魅,而對世界的祛魅意味著根除萬物有靈的泛靈論。啟蒙辨認出人類對惡魔的恐懼,試圖通過神靈的圣像用神奇的禮儀影響大自然。

        ----麥克斯·霍克海默和西奧多·阿多諾的《啟蒙辯證法》(1944

        過去若干年,我們見證了人們對法蘭克福學派興趣的復興。該學派是由一群德國社會學家、哲學家、文化理論家、心理分析家及其學生組成,其著作現在就等同于批判理論。法蘭克福學派的大部分最初成員都在1920年代聚集在德國法蘭克福市的社會科學研究院。大部分早期成員是猶太人,很多人在納粹上臺之前就已經離開或者逃離德國了。批判性的社會科學與哲學的思想交流是特別肥沃的土壤。當今,他們對權威主義人格和右翼民粹主義的研究,連同他們對消費文化的貧困的譴責已經逐漸被很多人認為具有先見之明。

        法蘭克福學派的兩位最重要成員是哲學家麥克斯·霍克海默(Max Horkheimer (1895-1973))和西奧多·阿多諾Theodor Adorno (1903-69)),他們在1921年在法蘭克福的歌德大學有關格式塔心理學的研討會上首次見面,阿多諾是本科生,霍克海默是博士生。但是,他們的思想關系因為他們在二戰期間在美國流亡的共同經歷而結出了豐碩的成果,他們對資本主義社會后期持續不斷的批判讓法蘭克福學派聲名鵲起。正如阿列克斯·羅斯(Alex Ross)在《紐約客》所說,如果阿多諾看看21世紀的文化風景,看到自己最擔憂的東西全部都變成了現實,可能令他感到沮喪,同時也會感到心滿意足。

        法蘭克福學派出版的單一最重要著作是霍克海默和阿多諾合著的《啟蒙辯證法》。該書1944年出版,1947年修訂,試圖通過理解現代性是如何產生法西斯主義和斯大林主義等恐怖東西的來診斷現代性的種種問題。

        為了給不熟悉者提供更廣泛的概要,霍克海默和阿多諾圍繞啟蒙(Aufklärung

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