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        民主豈是人能享受的?

        選擇字號:   本文共閱讀 3042 次 更新時間:2019-07-17 09:18:32

        吳萬偉  

        科斯提卡·布拉達坦 著 吳萬偉 譯

         

        人類無法維持民主,這一點兒都不令人感到吃驚。

        “民主為什么會失敗?”

        過去若干年,我們在書籍、報刊評論和新聞媒體上多次聽到過這個問題,這顯示出公眾對民主的辯論表現出越來越多的焦慮。但是,我幾乎總是不知不覺地提出另外一個問題作為對此問題的回答“民主為什么不應該失敗?”

        在此問題上,歷史是唯一真正的指南。歷史已經向我們顯示,民主十分罕見而且稍縱即逝。它曾在這個或那個幸運之地神秘莫測地曇花一現,接著同樣神秘莫測地消失了。真正的民主很難實現,即便實現了也極其脆弱。在人類歷史的宏大敘事中,民主是例外,而非法則。

        雖然民主的本質神秘莫測,但它的核心觀點卻簡單得令人癡迷:作為共同體的成員,我們在如何共同生活方面應該擁有同等的發言權。在其2006年的書《最初的民主:雅典思想的挑戰》中,得克薩斯州大學教授保羅·伍德拉夫Paul Woodruff)寫到,“在理想的民主中,所有成年人都可以自由地加入集體討論,參與到我們應該如何共同生活的對話之中。誰也沒有資格享受不受約束的權力,誰也不能傲慢自大、濫用權力。”你聽說過比這更通情達理的話嗎?不過,誰說我們是通情達理的人呢?  

        從根本上說,人類并不是注定要生活在民主社會中的。我們甚至可以提出民主是“不自然的”觀點,因為它違背了人的本能和天性沖動。對我們來說,就像對任何生物一樣,最自然的本能是謀求生存和繁衍。為此目的,我們堅持自己的觀點,冷酷無情地、愚蠢野蠻地與他人對抗。我們把他人推到旁邊,擠到他們前面,踩踏他們,甚至在必要時毀滅他們。在人類文明的笑臉背后發揮作用的是,我們在動物世界看到的那種走向自我肯定的盲目沖動。  

        只要攪動人類共同體平靜的表面,你很快就會發現大群這樣的人。動物學家康拉德·勞倫茲Konrad Lorenz)在《論攻擊》中寫到,正是“缺乏理性的、不可理喻的人性本質”推動了“兩大政黨或者擁有驚人相似的救贖途徑的宗教之間進行你死我活的殘酷斗爭。”正是這種本質推動“亞歷山大或者拿破侖不惜犧牲數百萬人的性命也要把全世界納入他的權杖之下。”在很大程度上,世界歷史就是那些過于自以為是的個人追求種種權杖的故事。

        一旦這樣的個人登上王位,其他人往往急不可耐地臣服于他。這沒有關系。在他輝煌杰出的形象面前,他們似乎意識到他們手中有太多的自由,他們突然發現處處受到壓迫。在陀思妥耶夫斯基(Dostoevsky)的《卡拉馬佐夫兄弟》中,大檢察官說,“只要他保持自由之身,就再也沒有無盡的、折磨人的關懷他人了,他唯一考慮的就是盡快找到一個可以鞠躬服從的人。”這是多么甜蜜的屈服啊!亞歷山大大帝、裘力斯·凱撒、拿破侖、希特勒、墨索里尼都是能言善辯的天才、魅力無窮的領袖、和偉大無比的政治誘惑者。

        他們與民眾的關系特別親密無間。在這樣的政權中,每當使用或者展示權力時,其效果總是令人興奮異常。比如,我們在“意志的勝利”(在很大程度上多虧了納粹導演萊尼·里芬斯塔爾Leni Riefenstahl)變態的天才)中看到的是人們經歷了一種集體的狂喜。誘惑者的聲明或許空洞無物,甚至是胡說八道,但這并不重要,每個誘惑者都讓興奮的民眾體驗到快樂的新高度。他能夠讓癡迷的追隨者去做任何他喜歡的事。這些民眾已經屈服于主人任何心血來潮和稀奇古怪的幻想。

        這大致就是民主觀念出現的歷史背景。難怪這是一場注定要失敗的戰斗。真正的民主并不能做出壯麗氣派的許諾,沒有誘惑力,也沒有迷人的魅力,只能竭力追求某種程度的人類尊嚴。民主一點兒也不性感,與民粹主義政權中發生的事相比,民主還極其脆弱。如果頭腦正常,誰會舍棄蠱惑人心的煽動者提供的瞬間滿足而愿意選擇去承擔乏味無聊的民主責任呢?誰會放棄無邊的狂喜而追求性冷淡者呢?但是,雖然如此,民主觀念在歷史上有好幾次接近實現,那是上帝造化的時刻,人類的成功令自己都感到吃驚。 

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